Selected topics
(JPM)
 

FUNCTIONAL DESIGN OF THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM (Comparative aspects)

 The dependence on oxygen. Gas diffusion and convection

 Mechanisms of gas convection

 The design of the mammalian respiratory system

 Animal size and metabolic requirements

 Respiratory adaptation to changes in body size and metabolic rate
                    1. Structure of the lungs and respiratory pump
                    2. Passive mechanical properties
                    3. Ventilation and dynamics of breathing
                    4. Distribution of ventilation
                    5. Transport of gases
                    6. Aspects of the regulation of the breathing pattern
 

OXYGEN NEEDS AND VENTILATORY COUPLING

Oxygen needs

Pulmonary and alveolar ventilation

Alveolar gas equation

End-expiratory and arterial PCO2

Coupling between metabolism and ventilation
 

MECHANICAL ASPECTS OF BREATHING

General concepts and terminology

Static mechanical properties
                    1. Compliance
                                       1. a. Specific compliance
                                       1. b. Dynamic compliance
                    2. Pressure-volume (P-V) curve of the lungs
                    3. Lung-chest wall coupling

Dynamic mechanical properties
                    1. Pressure-Flow relationship
                    2. Expiratory flow limitation
                    3. Partitioning of Resistance

Work and cost

The respiratory system in ‘active mode
                    1. Chest Wall Distortion
                    2. Expiration
                    3. Implications on the energetics of breathing
 
 

RESTING BREATHING PATTERN and ITS PERIPHERAL MODULATION

Neural basis of the respiratory output

Descending pathways

Peripheral control of the spirogram : Inspiration
                    1. Intrinsic mechanical properties of the respiratory muscles
                    2. Chest wall ventilatory reflexes
                    3. Vagal control of the breathing pattern
                                    3.1. Vagal reflexes
                                            a. maintained lung inflation
                                            b. maintained lung deflation
                                           c. airways occlusion at end-expiration
                                    3.2. Vagal receptors
                                            a. slowly adapting stretch receptors
                                            b. rapidly adapting ‘irritant’ receptors
                                            c. bronchial C-fibers
                    4. Upper airways ventilatory reflexes
                    5. Ventilatory reflexes of cardiac or visceral origin

Peripheral control of the spirogram: Expiration

 

Appendix 1. Measuring devices and techniques of common use in respiratory physiology.

Appendix 2. Basic physical properties applied to the respiratory system

Appendix 3. Glossary and Abbreviations (Symbols and Common Units)