Artificial cell was invented at McGill by Chang (Chang Chang Science 1964). Right from the beginningI realizes that this is such a large area that it will not be possible or ethical for one laboratory, one center, one university or even one country to do everything. As a physician researcher with the aim to do what is best for the patients, my plan has been to continue to do frontier innovative research of the future and at the same time to encourage others around the world to develop his ideas for patient use. This is by publishing all the reproducible details and methods; by encouraging and helping others to do this research; by sending  researchers to help others to start research in this area; by organizing international network, international meetings, international journals, books and a public service website containing complementary papers, books and videos for free access by all 






 Placed our emphasis on innovative ideas that depends on original ideas of individuals rather than extensive staff or facilities. This way, we have been more than competitive with the much larger international centers. Most of the original ideas in this area come from the director’s laboratory.  

Associate members from McGill:

They come from departments of Physiology, Biomedical Engineering, Experimental Medicine, Medicine and Surgery. Others come from the departments of Bioengineering , Chemical Engineering  and Mechanical Engineering and also McGill’s Biotechnology program .

Collaborate with other universities: 

The director holds a number of non-salary voluntary positions as honorary professor of Nankai University, China; Honorary Professor of Peking Union Medical College of the Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences (CAMS), Honorary Professor and key consultant of the Blood Transfusion Institute of the Chinese Academy Medical Sciences; and honorary professor of the Shantou University Medical College in his hometown. In 2019 his hometown Shantou university formed the “Father of Artificial Cells: Chang Ming Swi Academia Specialist Research Station” for their newly built Clinical Research Centre building.

Some examples of Chang helping other groups:

      Way back in 1964, the late Harvard Professor Folkman of angiogenesis fame phoned me for the detail procedure of my 1964 Science paper for his PhD student, the now well-known Professor Robert Langer of MIT. For many years Langer has interacted with me in organizing meetings and was a member of editorial board of our journal

·            Connaught Laboratory: I helped the director of Connaught start a research project on artificial cells containing islet. His research associate there, Professor A Sun did some excellent research.

·            The late Professor Sam Sideman, Chair of Biomedical Engineering, Israel Institute of Technology, Technion, has collaborated in hemoperfusion and blood substitutes and coeditor with me 2 books.

·            Help Professor Neufeld of McGill’s Chemical Engineering and his postdoc Dr Poncelet start their research in this area. Prof Neufeld later become Chairman of Chemical Engineering at Queens and works full time in this area. They have organized annual meetings on Bioencapsulation, especially in Europe.

·            Help Professor Mason of Chemistry at McGill and his postdoc Dr Kondo start a program on AC

·            Help a Professor in Polymer chemistry at McGill to start research on AC

·            Help Professor Charles Scriver at McGill to start a research project on the use of AC for PKU

·            Help Dr Paul Barre establish the Hemoperfusion procedure in McGill teaching hospital. He becomes the director of dialysis at McGill

·            Professor C Yang, has collaborated in blood substitutes for many years – was director and now emeritus director of the Blood Transfusion Institute of Peking Union Medical College and Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences

·            In 1968, Muller and Rudin reported that they used the method from Chang Science 1964, to prepare lipid membrane artificial cells. I “brain washed” a McGill Biochemistry PhD graduate, Gregoriadis, to study lipid membrane artificial cell for drug delivery for his postdoc in England with Bangham using their onion like multilaminar lipid microspheres.  This has resulted in liposomes now used commonly for drug delivery. 

·            D’Agnillo, (PhD with me in Physiology) to help Dr Alayash head of division of FDA/NIH to start a research program on blood substitutes. (He is now a senior staff there)

·            BL Yu (PhD with me in Biomed Eng) to help the late Dr. Zapol, Chief Anesthesiology, MGH Harvard start a research program on blood substitute (She is now an assistant Professor there)

·            Keipert (PhD with me in Physiology) to help start the blood substitute program for the late Professor Winslow at Letterman Institute and UC San Diego, he then become VP of Winslow’s company on blood substitutes

·            Prakash (PhD with me in Physiology) now professor at McGill Biomedical Engineering with his companies.

·            Poznanski (My first PhD graduate, Physiology) is director emeritus of Robert Research Institute.

·            Chawla, Daka & Ning join as staff at Health Canada Regulatory division.

·            Piskins both return to Turkey as professors.

·            YT Yu helps to start a successful hemoperfusion company in China.

·            KF Gu (PhD with me Chemical Enginering) helps Montreal IBEX Co on recombinant enzyme production.

·            The late Vivek Dixit (PhD with me in Physiology) professor and head of the artificial liver unit at UCLA

·            Wang (PhD with me in Expt Med) now associate Professor and director of a program at the 3rd affiliated hospital of Beijing University Medical School.

·            Bian (PhD with me in Biomedical Engineering and coinventor with me), is now senior administrator of the 3rd Generation Blood Substitute Co, Proheme in China. CHEN Gang (postdoc with me) is their manager.  Jing (PhD with me in Physiology) is their representative in Canada. Guo (PhD with me in Expt Medicine)  and Gu (PhD with me in Chemical Engineering)  are their consultants.

·            others include those from Saudi Arabia, Israel (Technion & Wiseman Institute), Japan (Tabata  ) and others.






This international network was formed in 1976 to encourage research, development and clinical

applications in artificial cells, blood substitutes, nanomedicine, regenerative medicine, tissue

engineering, cell/stem cell therapy, immunotherapy, hemoperfusion, bioencapsulation, and

related areas.

We have avoided a tight and restrictive organizational structure. Instead, responsibilities are

widely distributed to committees and organizers of congresses and symposia. This allows this

society to benefit from fresh ideas and novel approaches and to move with the frontier of

research. This, plus the enthusiastic participation and voluntary contribution of members of the

society, has allowed us to continue this international network for more than 40 years without

charging membership fees – this allows for world-wide participation with no restrictions related

to nationality, age, experience, financial status. This also avoid any one group or groups from

controlling the network or preventing it from moving in the frontier of research.


Elected Honorary President & coordinator : T.M.S.Chang (McGill, Canada)

Elected executive committee (Elected Past-Presidents of ISABI congresses and/or symposia):

V.Bonamini (Italy)1978; L.Bulow (Sweden), 2015; C.U.Casciani(Italy)1990; T.M.S.Chang(Canada)1976, 1987,1991,1996, 2017 ; K. Kobayashi (Japan) 2003; R.Langer (USA) 1994; Qin Liu (China) 2007; A. Mozzarelli (Italy) 2009;. Nikolaev(USSR) 1986; E.Piskin (Turkey)1982,2001; H. Sakai (Japan) 2019, A.Trevino Becerra(Mexico)1985, C.M.Yang(China), 1997, 2019; Zheng/Yang/Liu (China) 2013

Late Prof D. Falkenhagen (Austria); Late Prof. AG.Greenburg (USA) ;Late Prof M.Odaka (Japan); Late

Prof S.Sideman(Israel); Late Prof E.Tsuchida (Japan); Late Prof R.Winslow (USA)]: Late Professor

Y.T.Yu(China); Late Prof WM Zapol (USA) 2011

       Subcommittee of ISABB: International Committee on    Blood Substitutes:ISBS

Elected executive board members ISBS (past elected ISBS presidents or their representatives):

1987: Chang (1987, 1991,1996, 2017)

1993: Keipert (for late Winslow 1993, 1999)

1997: Yang/Yu YT (1997)

1997: Sakai (for late Tsuchida 1997)

2003: Kobayashi (2003)

2005: Greenberg (2005)

2007: Liu/Xiu (2007)

2009: Mozzarelli (2009)

2011: Zapol (2011)

2013: Zheng/Liu/Yang (2013)

2015: Leif Bülow (2015)

2017: Chang (2017)

2019: CM Yang, H Sakai (2019)

2023: Leif Bulow (2023)

Scientific Advisory Board ISBS

Alayash A, Abuchowski A. H Beumler, Bian Y,Biro B, Bucci E, Bülow L, Burhop K, Chan G, Chang TMS, Chen C, Cooper C, D’Agnillo F, Estep T, Feola M, Gould S, Han JQ, Hong Z, Intaglietta M, Jahr S, Keipert P,Kim HW, Kluger R, Kobayashi K, Krafft MP, Liu Q, Liu JX, Ma L, Meßmer K, Mozzarelli A, Palmer A, Privalle C, Pugach I, Rausch C, Riess JG, Sakai H,

Simoni, Selivanov E, Su ZG, Tsai AG, Wei G, Wong B, Wong JT, Xiu RJ, Yang CM, Yu BL, Zafiris G , Zal . Zapol W, ZhangY, Zhao L, Zhu YJW


The emphasis is to concentrate on 1 or 2 areas that need extensive effort towards routine clinical

uses. Once the area is in routine clinical use, the area is left to other groups to look after and we then concentrate on another 1 to 2 areas that needs major effort. Each congress or symposium

president in consultation with his local organizing committee, makes the final decision and has

the final responsibilities including financial responsibilities. After each congress or symposium,

the president or appointed representative becomes a member of the executive committee of the


1976 ISABI (I HPS) President: TMS Chang (McGill, Canada)

1978 ISABI (II HPS) President: V Bonamini (Bologna U, Italy) co-chair TMS Chang (McGill Canada)

1980 ISABI (III HPS) President: S. Sideman (Technion, Israel) co-chair TMS Chang (McGill Canada)

1982 ISABI (IV HPS) President: E. Piskin (Ankara U, Turkey) Honorary President: TMS Chang (Canada)

1983 ISABI (V HPS) President: C Z Huang (President, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences), co-chair TMS Chang (McGill Canada)

1985 ISABI (VI HPS) President: A. Trevino Becerra (Mexico). Honorary President: TMS Chang (Canada)

1986 ISABI (VII HPS) President: V.Nikolaev(USSR Academy of Sci), Honorary President:TMS Chang

1987 ISABI (III ISBS) President: TMS Chang (McGill, Canada), Cochair: R.Geyer (Harvard) 1987

1988 ISABI (VIII HPS) President: D.Falkenhagen & Klinkmann(Germany) Honorary President:TMS Chang


1990 ISABI (X HPS): President: C.U.Casciani(Rome U, Italy), Cochiar: G Splendiani (Rome U, Italy) Honorary President TMS Chang (McGill, Canada)

1991 ISABI (IV ISBS) President: T.M.S.Chang(McGill, Canada) Cochair R.Geyer (Harvard, USA)

1993 ISABI (V ISBS) President: R.Winslow(Letterman, USA) Cochairs: TMS Chang (McGill, Canada) & R.Riess (France), 1993

1994 ISABI Congress President: R. Langer (MIT, U.S.A.), Honorary president: TMS Chag (McGill)

1996 ISABI (VI ISBS) President: TMS Chang (McGill, Canada) Cochairs: A.G.Greenberg (Brown U, U.S.A) & E.Tsuchica (Waseda U, Japan)

1997 ISABI Congress President: Denian Ba (President,Academy of Med Sci, China) & C.M. Yang (CAMS, China), Honorary President TMS Chang (McGill, Canada)

1997 ISABI (VII ISBS) President: E.Tsuchida (Waseda U, Japan) Cochairs: S.Sekiguchi (Red Cross, Japan) & TMS Chang (McGill, Canada)

1999 ISABI (VIII ISBS) President: R.Winslow (UC at San Diego, U.S.A.) Cochairs: TMS Chang (McGill, Canada), M.Intaglietta(UC at San Diego, U.S.A.) & E.Tsuchida (Waseda U, Japan)

2001 ISABI Congress President: E. Piskin (Ankara U, Turkey) Honorary President: TMSChang (McGill)

2003 ISABI (IX ISBS) President: K. Kobayashi (Keio U, Japan), Cochair: E.Tsuchida (Waseda U, Japan), Honorary President: TMS Chang (McGill, Canada)

2005 ISABI (X ISBS) President: G. Greenberg (Brown U, U.S.A.) HonoraryPresident: TMS Chang

2007 ISABI (XI ISBS) President: Q. Liu (Vice-president, Chineswe Academyof Medical Sci., China) Executive President: R Xiu (Academy of Medical Sci, China), Honorary President: TMS Chang (McGill)

2009 ISABI (XII ISBS) President: A. Mozzarelli (University of Parma, Italy), Vice Presidents Professor Enrico Bucci (University of Maryland) and Professor Clara Fronticelli ( Johns Hopkins University, U.S.A.),             Honorary President: Professor TMS Chang (McGill University, Canada)

2011 ISABI (XIII ISBS) President: Professor W Zapol (Harvard Medical School, U.S.A.) Honorary President: Professor TMS Chang (McGill )

2013 ISABI (XIV ISBS) President: Professor Zheng (BTI China), Vice presidents Professor Liu (BTI China) & Professor Yang (BIT China), Honorary President, Professor Chang (McGill, Canada)

2015 ISABI (XV ISBS) President: Professor L Bulow (Lund, Sweden), Honorary President, Prof TMS Chang

2017 ISABI Congress (XVI ISBS, V ISNS) Professor TMS Chang, 60th anniversary Congress on Artificial Cells in conjunction with XVI ISBS and V ISNS (McGill, Canada)

2019 ISABI (XVII ISBS) China/Japan: Presidents Prof CM Yang/Prof H Sakai; Honorary President: TMS Chang

2021(cancelled because of pandemic)

2023 ISABI (XVIII ISBS) President Prof Leif Bulow, Lund. Sweden Honorary President: TMS Chang

2024 ISABI (XIX ISBS) Co-presidents: Prof J Jahr & Prof A Doctor (U.S.A.), Honorary President TMS Chang (McGill,Canada)




journal ( ) Publisher: Frances & Taylor,


This is a peer review journal that is the oldest journal in the field having started in

1972 as "Biomaterial, Medical Devices & Artificial Organs, an international journal".

1979: Chang became the editor in chief and allows the name of the journal to change with time

to reflect the frontier of research in the area. Before 2003 this journal was "Artificial Cells,

Blood Substitutes and Immobilization Biotechnology").

2003: Starting in 2003 it was "Artificial Cells Blood Substitutes and Biotechnology.

2012 it became Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine and Biotechnology. Its demand is such that in

2016 the publisher has increased the issues from 6/year to 8/year with corresponding increase in

the total pages. In 2019 the submission increased to 2,400 that required too much time for the editor in chief. He thus becomes emeritus editor to be free from day-to-day functions and looking after major matters.

Editor in chief 1980-2020 Emeritus Editor 2020-

TMS Chang (McGill, Canada);

Three coeditors in chief 2020-

D Misra (USA) W Chrzanowski (Australia) P Roach (U.K.)

Associate Editors: S. Bruno (Italy), G. Budak (Turkey), G. Chan (China), Chen. G (China), E. Georges

(Canada), S. Prakash (Canada), H. Sakai (Japan), BL Yu (USA), JYW Zhu (China),

International Editorial Board: 52 members

Please see home page: for more details




(World Science Publisher/Imperial College Press)

Editor in chief: TMS Chang (McGill,Canada)

Volume 1: Monograph “ARTIFICIAL CELLS: Biotechnology, Nanomedicine, Regenerative Medicine,

Blood Substitutes, Bioencapsulation and Cell-Stem Cell Therapy” Chang 2007 454 pages with full text

now available free on

Volume 2: Present and future Therapies for End-Stage Renal Failure. Editors: Eli Friedman & MC

Mallappallil (2010)

Volume 3: Selected Topics in Nanomedicine. Editor: TMS Chang (2013)

Volume 4: Hemoperfusion and plasma-perfusion: general, selective, immune and leucocyte adsorbents.

Editors: TMS Chang, Y Endo, VG Nikolaev, T Tani, YT Yu and WH Zheng (2017)

Volume 5: Nanobiotherapeutic Blood Substitutes: Editor in chief: TMS Chang, Co-editors: Bulow, Jahr ,

Sakai and Yang 2021  Available free online at:

Volume 6: TMS Chang: 3rd edition of Monograph “ARTIFICIAL CELLS” Chang for 2023:



The Web Site of this international

network: or or